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Oggetto:

Quantum Effects in Materials: From Theory to Modelling

Oggetto:

Quantum Effects in Materials: From Theory to Modelling

Oggetto:

Academic year 2021/2022

Course ID
CHI0153
Teachers
Prof. Lorenzo Maschio (Lecturer)
Paolo Torrielli (Lecturer)
Degree course
MaMaself
Materials Science
Year
1st year
Teaching period
First semester
Type
Related or integrative
Credits/Recognition
10
Course disciplinary sector (SSD)
CHIM/02 - chimica fisica
FIS/02 - fisica teorica, modelli e metodi matematici
Delivery
Class Lecture + Lab Practicals
Language
English
Attendance
Obligatory
Type of examination
Oral
Oggetto:

Sommario del corso

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Course objectives

Quantum mechanics is the branch of physics that describes the behaviour of subatomic particles such as electrons and protons. Many properties of matter emerge from effects that originate at the quantum scale, and specially those features that make materials interesting for advanced applications. Moreover, today’s quantum-chemical simulation techniques allow to exploit the power of modern computers to apply such theoretical tools to the routine study of molecules and materials.

The main objective of this course is to provide students with a complete understanding of basic and advanced principles of quantum mechanics, which are the prerequisite to a modern approach to materials chemistry and solid state physics. In addition to that, the course aims at discussing how these concepts can be applied to the study of real systems, the necessary approximations involved, and the formal aspects required to translate equations into computer algorithms.

Oggetto:

Results of learning outcomes

  • Master the language and formalisms of quantum mechanics.
  • Know the main theoretical tools and techniques used to describe relevant effects taking place at the scale of electrons and nuclei.
  • Understand the physics of light-matter interaction.
  • Understand the equations and approximations implemented in modern quantum-chemical simulation softwares.
  • Ability to properly set up, run and interpret the results of simple quantum chemical calculations of solids.
  • Ability to understand the reliability of a quantum-chemical simulation based on approximations and parameter used.
Oggetto:

Program

MODULE A: QUANTUM PHYSICS

  • Review of basic concepts: fundamentals of quantum mechanics, linear algebra, bra/ket notation, probability theory.
  • Quantum confinement effects: one-dimensional potential wells and tunnel effect. Applications to alpha decay phenomena and scanning-tunneling microscopy.  
  • Angular momentum, spin and addition of angular momenta
  • Motion of charged particles in electro-magnetic fields, gauge invariance, Landau levels and quantum Hall effect.
  • Non-degenerate perturbation theory, fundamentals of degenerate perturbation theory, applications to hydrogen-like atoms (normal Zeeman effect, relativistic correction, spin-orbit correction, anomalous Zeeman effect, Stark effect).
  • Time-dependent phenomena: time evolution, time-dependent perturbation theory, Fermi golden rule. Application to electronic transitions and lasers.
  • Identical particles, bosons and fermions, exchange interactions.

MODULE B: QUANTUM CHEMISTRY AND MODELLING

  • The many-electron problem: spinorbitals and Slater determinants.
  • Molecular electronic structure: the molecular electrostatic Hamiltonian and the Hartree-Fock (HF) method. The self-consistent field procedure.
  • Electron correlation. Basics of Density Functional Theory and post Hartree-Fock (configuration interaction, Moeller-Plesset) treatments.
  • Electronic structure of ordered solids: Fourier transforms, band theory, Bloch theorem, Fermi level, periodic boundary conditions. Extension of HF and DFT computational methods to solids.
  • Nuclear motion: geometry optimization, vibrational frequencies.
  • Light-matter interaction. Electronic excitations, linear response, dielectric properties of matter, simulation of vibrational spectra. 
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Course delivery

Frontal lectures, exercises, laboratory

Webex streaming at

https://unito.webex.com/meet/paolo.torrielli (Module A)

https://unito.webex.com/meet/lorenzo.maschio (Module B)

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Learning assessment methods

Oral examination, taking place jointly for Module A and B.

For Module A the exam consists of a short exercise, plus few theroy questions on the topics treated in the course. For Module B it consists of theory questions plus a short report on laboratory activity.

Main focus of the exam is the assesment of the student's understanding of the basic laws ruling quantum effects in materials from a physical and physico-chemical viewpoint. Module A and Module B have equal weight in the final evaluation.

The exam is in person, but possibility is given of remote examination at the webex pages https://unito.webex.com/meet/paolo.torrielli or https://unito.webex.com/meet/lorenzo.maschio for the cases that comply with the Covid-19 UNITO regulations.

Suggested readings and bibliography

Oggetto:

MODULE A

  • Lecture notes
  • F. Schwabl, Quantum Mechanics
  • D. Griffiths, Introduction to Quantum Mechanics.
  • J. J. Sakurai, Modern Quantum Mechanics

MODULE B

  • Lecture notes
  • Szabo, Ostlund, "Modern Quantum Chemistry: Introduction to Advanced Electronic Structure Theory"


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Class scheduleV

Lessons: dal 04/10/2021 to 04/02/2022

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